Amino acids and proteins pt.1

In amino acids and proteins part 1, the first thing I learnt was how to draw the general structure of an amino acid. The R groups are interchangeable and can either be non polar, aliphatic, polar, uncharged,aromatic, positively charged or negatively charged. Wow! That’s a lot but hopefully I can remember their names and structures. I also learnt how to form cystine from two cysteine molecule , via oxidation reaction. This reaction can allow be reversible via reduction. I also learnt, finally the second time around the differences between the non-ionic and zwitterionic forms of the amino acid structures. There are many different types of amino acids, they include essential, non-essential amino acids and complete and incomplete proteins. To identify amino acids we use the ninhydrin reaction, and to identify proteins the biuret test is done.
One very important note about amino acids, we learnt about the formation of a peptide bond, also known as a covalent bond between an alpha amino group and an alpha carboxyl group via condensation. Also we learnt that peptides are the names given to short polymers of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. They can be di,tri and polypeptides and proteins which consists of one or more than one polypeptide chains. Finally, we learnt about the functional classes of proteins, and their major groups, such as globular, fibrous and membrane proteins.
All these concepts were well delivered via the video and class lectures, one again, thanks to Mr.Matthews
Wow! I would say that’s a lot of proteins to digest! Hahaha! I know that was soo lame!

Till next time biochem enthusiasts! šŸ˜€

Carbohydrates tutorial

In our second tutorial, which by the way I was totally dreading! LOL, we took look at both carbs 1 and 2. We were provided with a tutorial sheet which contained a lot of useful questions more aimed at understanding the theory taught in class. The sheet helped me to review and reinforce what we learned, and gave me try at answering questions. But when tutorial day came, we were put to the real test. As usual Mr.Matthews asked us question outside of the tutorial sheet, which made us think a little more harder, since some of the questions weren’t exactly straight forward. We drew structures and learnt how to count and identify stereoisomers. Also, the reactions of some disaccharides with Benedict’s and Fehling’s solutions. Finally, we learnt about anomers, and their relative concentrations in solution.
This tutorial was quite useful, and allowed me obtained further knowledge about the specifics of carbohydrates. The tutorial wasn’t that bad after all. Haha

Until next time all! Keep blogging! šŸ˜€

Carbohydrates pt.2

In carbs 2, we learnt about a very important bond known as the glycosidic bond. This bond is very important in joining of sugars or monosaccharides via the reaction of condensation. We also looked at various examples of disaccharide such as maltose,cellobiose, sucrose and lactose. Also, a brief look on lactose intolerance was done. Polysaccharide structure and function was then observed. The importance of amylose, amylopectin, glycogen and cellulose, with respect to their structure and function was well noted. To identify reducing sugars, we used Fehling’s or Benedict’s solutions.
After looking at the video and making my own notes, I gained a better insight about this topic and its importance in biochemistry.
Till next time bloggers! šŸ˜€

Carbohydrates Pt. 1

InĀ CarbohydratesĀ 1, we were introduced to the fundamentals of carbohydrates. I learnt about theĀ bio significanceĀ of carbohydrates, such as their use as energy sources, functions such as storage and structure and their role as precursor molecules. Also, we learnt that carbs can be metabolized in processes such as gylcolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen synthesis and catabolism and gluconeogensis. We also looked at the different forms of cabs, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides,oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.Ā 

The concept of chiral objects was also introduced in this topic, this concept was brought across very clearly and taught in a way that was easy to understand by Mr.Matthews. The same can be said about D vs L designation and sugar nomemclature. We also took a look at hemiacetal and hemiketal formation, as well as sugar derviates.

Some of these concepts listed here, wasĀ difficultĀ to understand the first time I did the course, but thanks to Mr.Matthews, together with his informativeĀ videosĀ and in class lectures, I learnt more about Carbohydrates than what I learnt the first time around.

This made this topic a one full of lots of information and knowledge for me..:)Ā 

Until next time bloggers! šŸ™‚

Tutorial 1-Cells

Yes guys I know this is long overdue! But things have been getting intense lately! But at least I doing it now, as they say better late than never. This being my first tutorial I was definitely scared. I got the first question,but fortunately for me I knew the right answer. LOL. But all in all, the tutorial turned out to be an interesting and knowledge filled one. It gave me a deeper understanding and clarified some concepts such as the the endosymbiotic theory. Mr.Matthews explanation definitely made the concept,uncheck clearer for me. That first tutorial wasn’t as bad as I expected. šŸ˜€
Till next time bloggers!